## Quantum of 123d space = h

123d space possesses an inherent energy magnitude - the product of a number of factors, including ....

- the energy contained within its basic 1-D units of energy (potential energy),
- the number of basic 1-D units of energy per unit area or per unit volume (potential energy),
- the rate of motion of basic 1-D units of energy relative to each other (kinetic energy), and
- the degree of randomness (the more randomness, the greater system directional balance - contributes to inherent energy magnitude of 123d space?).

The inherent energy magnitude of 123d space for 1-D energy (with no gravitational energy gradient) is equal to Planck’s constant, h, so that the 1-D magnetic energy formed by 123d space to provide directional balance to the 1-D electric vector has a *maximum* energy magnitude equal to h, and therefore can only provide “h” amount of directional balance to the electric energy per electromagnetic interaction. Note that one quantum of 1-D energy of 123d space represents the energy magnitude of its *smallest*, most basic unit. But it also represents the *largest* amount of 1-D energy magnitude it can provide during each electromagnetic interaction.

In this model, amplitude is due to rate of acceleration of the 1-D electric energy outward toward a lower energy level. The rate of acceleration of the 1-D electric energy is proportional to its total energy, so the faster its acceleration, the higher its amplitude. All 1-D electromagnetic interactions can only proceed to a point where the 1-D magnetic energy reaches the inherent 1-D energy magnitude of 123d space. At this point, the process reverses itself, forcing the 1-D electric energy back to its original higher energy level. The process then repeats itself.

(Examples of relationships involving "h" amount of energy in electromagnetic interactions: E = hf, or f = E/h, h = E/f where E is the total energy of the “photon,” h = Planck’s constant, and f = frequency of the electromagnetic interaction. Other relationships: c = fλ, λ = c/f, E = hc/λ.)

Since the inherent energy of 123d space is limited to providing “h” amount of energy per 1-D electromagnetic interaction to provide directional balance to the 1-D electric energy, this is the limiting factor determining how much total energy a 1-D electromagnetic energy photon can possess.

When the frequency of 1-D electromagnetic interactions is so high that the 1-D energy starts to interfere with itself, or the point at which the inherent 1-D energy magnitude of 123dspace can no longer provide adequate directional balance to the 1-D electric energy, the 1-D electric energy is forced to displace 2-D space, becoming 2-D electromagnetic energy (e.g., electron, positron) existing at a higher energy level.

To explore traditional views on the quantum, see "Quantum" on Wikipedia.