34- covalent bonds


Ionic bonds

Photon collision with orbital e-+/ e+- particle

Van der Waals forces

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Gravitational energy gradients


Covalent bonds

A covalent bond is formed when two atoms, each missing one e-+/e+- particle to fill an energy shell, each share one e-+/e+- particle with the other to fill the energy shells in both atoms.

Prior to the formation of a covalent bond, each atom has one missing orbital e-+/e+- particle in order to complete or fill an energy shell.  This means that each atom has one unpaired orbital e-+/e+- particle, and that orbital particle is only entangled to a nuclear e+-/e-+ partner.

When an e-+/e+- particle is shared in a covalent bond, it remains entangled with its original nuclear e+-/e-+ partner, but also becomes entangled with the shared orbital e+-/e-+ particle from the other atom.

The strength of the covalent bond between the two atoms is due to the entanglement of each shared e-+/e+- particle with a new orbital e+-/e-+ partner of the other atom, while maintaining entanglement with its original nuclear e+-/e-+ partner, thereby being entangled with e+-/e-+ partners from both atoms (one orbital and one nuclear).


See illustration below. Click here for enlargement.


34- covalent bonds


To explore traditional views on covalent bonds, see "Covalent bond" on Wikipedia.