## "Charge fields" caused by the vibration of gravitational energy gradients with e-m interactions of elementary particles

**Charge caused by oscillation or vibration of a particle’s gravitational energy gradient with every electromagnetic interaction of the particle**

Elementary 2-D electromagnetic (e-m) energy systems, such as electrons and positrons, are encompassed by directionally opposing 2-D gravitational energy gradients to provide directional balance. Gravitational gradients are formed by the inherent energy of adjacent 123d space to maintain its directional balance by providing directional balance of the particle’s unidirectional energy.

The gravitational gradient of an electron consists of a changing ratio of greater potential energy to kinetic energy of 123d space inward toward the electron’s center of gravity. As a result, the outer region of the electron’s gravitational gradient consists of predominantly kinetic energy of 123d space (i.e., a high rate of motion of basic 1-D units of energy of 123d space). The central region of the gravitational gradient near the electron’s center of gravity is composed primarily of potential energy of 123d space (i.e., basic 1-D units of energy of 123d space in which energy is stored or trapped – these 1-D units of energy allow the energy of 123d space to exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium through random motion and distribution relative to each other). The gravitational gradient gives the electron its “mass” or confined non-linear e-m energy.

The gravitational gradient of a positron consists of a changing ratio of greater kinetic energy to potential energy of 123d space inward toward the positron’s center of gravity. Since the positron possesses the opposite electromagnetic directionality to that of an electron, its gravitational gradient directionality is opposite that of an electron as well.

The gravitational energy gradient of an elementary particle oscillates or vibrates with every electromagnetic interaction of the particle. The vibration of the gravitational gradient produces a directional force composing the “charge” field of the particle. Since the gravitational gradient of a particle directionally opposes the e-m directionality of the particle to provide directional balance, the gravitational gradient of an electron is directionally opposing to that of a positron. And when the gravitational gradient of an electron vibrates with the electron’s e-m interactions, it creates a charge field that is opposite that of the positron’s charge field.

The gravitational energy gradient of an elementary particle contributes to the confinement of its electromagnetic energy, giving it “mass” or inertia to motion when interacting other energy or mass. As a result, when the energy or mass of a 2-D or 3-D elementary e-m particle increases, the strength of its gravitational energy increases, and its frequency of electromagnetic interactions ** decreases**. This inverse proportionality may maintain the same magnitude of the charge field regardless of particle size.

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