47- proton structure


Neutrino structure

Neutrino converting to photons

Proton - 3-D unidirectional energy component

Antiproton structure

Hydrogen atom and proton


Neutron decay

Atomic energy system

Entanglement in an atom

Nucleon mass size due to entanglement and gravitational gradient strength

Effect of temperature limits on atomic particle mass size

Developing an equation - to describe nucleon size due to gravitational gradient and entanglement


Proton structure

A proton consists of two opposing electron-positron (i.e., one e-+/e+- and one e+-/e-+) particles and one positron (i.e., e+) particle existing in a very strong gravitational energy gradient. These constituent particles represent the quarks of a proton, but in this model, may possess different structures and properties than those of traditional quarks.

The two opposing electron-positron (e-+/e+- and e+-/e-+) particles are entangled with each other, each composing an opposing pole of the proton (along its axis of spin).  The positron particle (e+) is “trapped” within the entanglement of the two polar particles, existing at the system center, where the 3-D electric energy is at its highest energy density, and where the gravitational energy gradient is the strongest.  The charged e+ particle is the "odd-particle-out" unable to become entangled with the other constituent particles, and unable to escape.

(An alternative relationship between the proton's three constituent particles: It is possible that entanglement alternates between the three constituent particles of the proton, so that for every e-m interaction, one of the three is the "odd-particle-out," so that the particles "take turns" being entangled and being the charged particle. This would create an entangled relationship where all three particles are dependent upon each other for directional balance, yet result in one positive charge with every e-m interaction. However, for every three e-m interactions, the "center of charge" would be in three different locations within the proton structure, and this might not provide optimal directional balance.)

The radius of the proton may be equivalent to the Schwarzchild radius of macro-bodies of mass - in any case, the proton is likely to have a strong gravitational energy gradient due to its small size and 3-D unidirectional - or electric - energy in motion relative to system center.

The size of the proton's constituent e-+/e+- particles is a factor of the strong gravitational energy gradient within the proton (and atomic nucleus) - see Nucleon Size Due to Entanglement.

The Compton (1-D wavelength) of the proton (1321 mfm) and its 3-D wavelength (E = 4(pi)rk/r^2 = 1303 mfm; where k = energy at origin in a 3-D sphere) are close in value.  This may contribute to the exceptional structural stability of the proton. (However, it seems unlikely that the Compton wavelength applies to 2-D and 3-D elementary energy systems since their energy properties differ from those of 1-D elementary energy - so the above relationship may simply be coincidental.)


See illustration below. Click here for enlargement.


47- proton structure


To explore traditional views on properties of a proton, see "Proton" on Wikipedia.

To explore traditional views on properties of the Schwarzchild radius, see "Schwarzchild radius" on Wikipedia.