## Developing an equation - to decribe nucleon size due to gravitational gradient and entanglement *{under construction} ....*

*Information needed to develop the equation describing nucleon size in this model:*

**Description of elementary energy model being addressed.**

In an atom, each nuclear particle is entangled with an orbital partner at a corresponding energy level, and due to entanglement, both entangled particles possess the same rate of electromagnetic (e-m) interaction as measured by an observer positioned outside of the gravitational gradient of the atom being observed. This 1:1 rate of e-m interaction between the entangled particles provides optimal directional balance to the energy system that they compose.

If the gravitational energy gradient within the nucleus is much stronger than the gravitational energy gradient in regions of the orbital particles, then the nucleus will possess much slower rates of electromagnetic interaction and correspondingly slower rates of time. So if a nucleon possesses the same rate of e-m interaction as its entangled orbital partner (as measured by an unaffected outside observer), then the nucleon will be much larger in total energy or mass than its orbital partner. The mass of a nucleon, then, is due to the difference in strength of the gravitational gradient and entanglement with its orbital partner.

So how strong would the gravitational gradient within the atom need to be so that a nucleon possesses approximately twice the size of a proton compared to its entangled orbital partner that possesses the energy or mass of an electron?

Note: One assumption of this model is that neutrons and protons do not compose a nucleus, although they may be created and radiated from the nucleus under certain circumstances. Instead the nucleus consists of nucleons of varying sizes between the size of a proton to approximately twice the size of a proton – depending upon the energy level they occupy and the entangled relationships they have. Nucleons are also entangled with other nucleons occupying the same energy level, and orbital particles are also entangled with other orbital particles existing at the same energy level. So pairs of entangled nuclear and orbital partners existing at corresponding energy levels may all be entangled with each other.

So what is the equation that describes the above gravitational energy gradient within an atom and its nucleus?

**Assumptions (further description of the model).**

Gravitational gradients consist of a greater proportion of potential energy of 123d space to kinetic energy of 123d space inward toward a body of mass (e.g., 2-D or 3-D particle). The changing ratio of potential energy to kinetic energy of 123d space inward toward a body of mass composes a gravitational energy gradient that provides directional balance to the body of mass.

Subatomic particles are either 2-D or 3-D electromagnetic energy confined to an enclosed, nonlinear structure. Since they are 2-D or 3-D, they possess gravitational energy gradients and, as a result, possess mass.Starting out, atomic nucleons are the same size as their entangled orbital partners, existing as e-+/e+- particles, alternating directionality with every electromagnetic (e-m) interaction. (Particles are most likely born at the core of a star, consisting of two pairs of entangled e-+/e+- particles that compose the equivalent of a "neutral proton." As the neutral proton moves outward away from the core of a star, it moves into regions of less gravitational gradient strength (and faster rates of e-m interaction and correspondingly faster rates of time, but with lower pressure/temperatures), and one of its e-+/e+- particles moves outside the boundary of the proton to an orbital position, forming a Hydrogen atom.)

A nucleon is entangled with an orbital partner existing at a corresponding orbital energy level, and with another nucleon existing at the same nuclear energy level.

An orbital particle is entangled with a nuclear partner existing at a corresponding nuclear energy level, and with another orbital particle existing at the same energy level.

In other words, typically two nucleons and two orbital particles are all entangled with each other (i.e., two pairs of entangled nuclear and orbital partners) to provide optimal directional balance.

Atomic nucleons consist of e-m energy confined to a very small region of space, resulting in a very strong gravitational gradient.

The strong gravitational energy gradient within the atomic nucleus responds to the electromagnetic interactions of the nucleons – by forming a stronger gravitational gradient with a higher ratio of potential to kinetic energy of 123d space and/or by oscillating or vibrating with every e-m interaction – which may result in unidirectional forces (e.g., "charge," "spin"). This may not happen in a directionally balanced atom where entanglement provides optimal directional balance, in effect “neutralizing” the directionality of e-m interactions within the atomic energy system. But the gravitational gradient still responds with a very high ratio of potential to kinetic energy of 123d space to provide directional balance to the high density of energy confined the nucleus.

The strength of the gravitational gradient at atomic and subatomic scales is exponentially greater than at larger scales – and the motion of 2-D or 3-D energy inward to or outward from system center in unentangled particles may *amplify* the strength of the gravitational gradient by causing it to oscillate or vibrate with each electromagnetic interaction. This vibration of the gravitational energy gradient in unentangled elementary particles may be at least partially, if not completely, responsible for elementary charge and spin. (The size of elementary particles may represent limits of gravitational energy gradient strength.)

(**** LEFT OFF HERE for revision ****)

Due to the strength of the gravitational gradient within a nucleus, there is a very slow rate of e-m interaction and a correspondingly slow rate of time.

Entangled particles provide optimal directional balance through opposing e-m directionality (and interchanging identities) with every e-m interaction, so that they possess the same rate of e-m interaction.

The nuclear particles start out (within the core of stars) possessing the same size as their entangled orbital partners – both existing as “free energy” or “free particles” – as opposed to existing as confined components (i.e., nucleons, orbital particles) of an atomic structure.

But moving outward from the core of a star, with cooling the entangled e-+/e+- particles take on nuclear and orbital “positions” to maintain directional balance through their entangled relationship. However, as the entangled partners move apart into regions with different gravitational gradient strengths (strongest at the center of the atomic nucleus, weaker outward from the nucleus), they do not experience or perceive of their partner's gravitational energy gradient strength. Therefore, they do not experience or perceive of their partner's relative difference in size. However, outside observers can perceive the difference between the size of a nucleon and its entangled orbital partner.

To maintain optimal directional balance through entanglement, the nucleons take on (or maintain) the same rate of e-m interaction as their entangled orbital partners (as measured by an outside observer unaffected by the local gravitational energy gradient).

Because the orbital partners exist in a region of much weaker gravitational energy gradient, they are governed by a much higher rate of e-m interaction and correspondingly higher rate of time relative to that of the nucleus.

Their nucleon counterparts exist in a region of much stronger gravitational energy gradient, with a much slower rate of e-m interaction and correspondingly slower rate of time.

The orbital particles are entangled with nuclear partners existing at corresponding energy levels. To maintain optimal directional balance, they both possess the same rate of e-m interaction – or 1:1 rate of e-m interaction (as measured by an outside observer). Since the nucleons exist in a very strong gravitational gradient with a very slow rate of e-m interaction and rate of time, they possess a proportionally greater amount of energy or mass than their entangled orbital partners.

*So, the equation in question would describe the strength of the gravitational gradient in the orbital region of an atom versus that in the nucleus to account for the difference in total energy or mass of a nucleon relative to its entangled orbital partner.*

*Another equation* might describe a gravitational energy gradient for an elementary charged particle (unentangled) where the vibration or oscillation of the gravitational gradient with every e-m interaction of the particle may be responsible for elementary charge.

For opposing charge, the gravitational gradient may consist of a higher ratio of kinetic to potential energy of 123d space inward toward system center (the opposite directionality of gravitational gradients for large of bodies of mass).

**Other issues to be considered.**

What is the composition of a nucleon? In the above example, a nucleon is assumed to "start out" as an e+-/e-+ particle that is identical, but with opposing e-m directionality, to that of its eventual orbital e-+/e+- partner (as they move outward from the center of a star to cooler temperatures). However, within the core of a star, nucleons may be created with a more complex structure - maybe that of a neutral proton consisting of two pairs of entangled e+-/e-+ and e-+/e+- particles, and outward from the core of a star, with cooling, one of these e-+/e+- particles moves outward into an atomic orbital to provide maximum directional balance to the atomic energy system. If this is the case, all four particles in a Hydrogen atom may be entangled as two pairs of entangled particles all existing at corresponding energy levels, and *all* possessing the same rate of e-m interaction as the orbital particle even though the three of the particles (analogous to quarks) exist within a much stronger gravitational gradient of the nucleus with a much slower rate of e-m interaction and correspondingly slower rate of time. So the size of a nucleon may be determined by three particles composing it as opposed to a single particle, all three with the same rate of e-m interaction as their entangled orbital e-+/e+- particle that exists within a much weaker gravitational energy gradient.

Is the Compton wavelength valid across 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D energy systems? The properties of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D elementary energy are different. For example, rates of electromagnetic interaction are probably different due to a combination of their respective dimensionalities and gravitational energy gradients. For instance, 2-D energy oscillates back and forth from system center in a 2-D plane or area while 3-D energy oscillates back and forth from system center in a 3-D spherical volume. The 2-D gravitational gradient is due to the changing ratio of potential energy to kinetic energy of 123d space in a 2-D plane inward toward system center while a 3-D gravitational gradient is due to the changing ratio of potential energy to kinetic energy of 123d space in a 3-D spherical volume inward toward system center. As a result of these factors, the Compton wavelength (1-D photon equivalent) does not necessarily apply to 2-D electrons or positrons or to 3-D protons or nucleons (if nucleons consist of 3-D energy).

Click here to enlarge illustration below.

To explore traditional views on atomic structure, see "Atom" on Wikipedia, and for proton structure, see "Quarks" on Wikipedia.