56 - atomic structure showing orbital and nuclear particles - 12-11-12

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Nucleon mass size due to entanglement and gravitational gradient strength

Developing an equation - to describe nucleon size due to gravitational gradient and entanglement

Effect of temperature limits on atomic particle mass size

Photon interacts with orbital e-+/ e+- particle

Atomic nucleus - 3-D unidirectional energy component

Isotopes

Bosons versus fermions

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Entanglement in an atom

The atom consists of a nucleus composed of nucleons and distant orbitals composed of orbital particles. Orbital particles may be entangled with other orbital particles, and with nucleons.

The orbital e-+/e+- particles exist in regions of much less gravitational energy gradient strength, with a much faster rate of e-m interaction, or faster rate of time. The nuclear e+-/e-+ particles exist at corresponding energy levels to those of their entangled orbital e-+/e+- partners.

The nuclear e+-/e-+ particles eixsting at corresponding energy levels to those of their entangled orbital partners possess the same faster rate of e-m interactions as their orbital partners, even though they exist within a region of strong gravitational energy gradient with a slower rate of e-m interaction, and slower rate of time (time dilation).  This is due to their entanglement - which provides optimal directional balance. As a result, each nucleon possesses much more mass size than its entangled orbital partner. In this model, neutrons are not required to account for the higher mass of larger atoms. Instead, nucleons vary in size - the further out the entangled orbital particles exist (outer energy levels), the larger the mass of their corresponding nuclear partners.

The entangled orbital and nuclear particles exist within energy sublevels (e.g., orbitals) occupied by one pair of entangled particles. Because entangled particles are directionally balanced and interchange identities with every e-m interaction, they do not see themselves as having individual identities, but instead existing as components of a single directionally balanced energy system.

The energy sublevels, each consisting of two entangled particles, may be entangled with other energy sublevels, together composing an energy level that may consist of many entangled particles, each particle representing "one quantum" of energy. For example, an energy level might consist of 4 energy sublevels, or orbitals, each with 2 entangled particles, for a total of 8 entangled particles. This energy level, then can collectively provide 8 "quanta" of magnetic energy at one time, providing directional balance to 8 quanta of electric energy per electromagnetic interaction.

NOTE on "time" in an atom: Entangled partners (with the same rate of e-m interaction) do not experience net time since they provide each other optimal directional balance. However, the gravitational energy gradient creates net time within the atom since its strength varies from relatively weak in the regions of the outer orbitals and very strong within the nucleus. So while the entangled orbital and nuclear partners may experience no net time, an outside observer will see or experience the time differential and its effects due to the strong gravitational gradient of the atom.

In the illustration below, the outer energy level consists of 2 pairs of entangled particles or 2 filled energy sublevels. The pairs of entangled particles are also entangled with each other, composing an energy level with a tota of 4 entangled particles. The energy of all the entangled particles in the same energy level may act as "one," able to provide directional balance as "multiples" of quantum energy (i.e., Planck's constant, h) per interaction. In other words, the energy level in the illustration below, consisting of 4 entangled orbital particles, can provide 4 quanta of magnetic energy per electromagnetic interaction, to a directionally opposing (electric) energy level within the nucleus consisting of 4 nuclear particles.

 

See illustration below. Click here for enlargement.

 

56- entanglement in an atom

 

 

To explore traditional views on properties of atoms, see "Atom" on Wikipedia.

To explore traditional views on properties of the atomic nucleus, see "Atomic nucleus" on Wikipedia.