56a - atomic particle size due to entanglement and gravitational energy gradient

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Developing an equation - to describe nucleon size due to gravitational gradient and entanglement

Effect of temperature limits on atomic particle mass size

Photon interacts with orbital e-+/ e+- particle

Atomic nucleus - 3-D unidirectional energy component

Isotopes

Bosons versus fermions

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Nucleon mass size due to entanglement

Each orbital particle (e-+/e+-) is entangled with a nuclear particle (e+-/e-+), each with opposing and alternating e-m directionality with every e-m interaction. The orbital particle exists at a distance from the atomic nucleus within a region of significantly weaker gravitational energy gradient - with a faster rate of e-m interaction and faster rate of time.

When both entangled partners have the same rate of e-m interaction (1:1), they compose a system with optimum directional balance, or lowest possible energy level. As a result, the nuclear particle takes on the same high rate of e-m interaction as its entangled orbital partner (or vice versa - The nucleons are most likely created in extreme physical conditions at the cores of stars. However, this model is being presented from the perspective that nuclear particles and their entangled orbital partners start out as identical, directionally opposing particles. Yet, it may be that the particles both start out with large mass, and as the orbital particle moves outward from the nucleus, it becomes smaller in mass. Either way, the strength of the gravitational gradient in the region of the particle impacts its size.)

A strong gravitational gradient provides directional balance for the nucleus. This strong gravitational gradient results in a nucleus with a slow rate of e-m interaction and slow rate of time. For massless 1-D photons, an increase in total energy results in an increase in frequency of e-m interactions (and shorter wavelength). This is because 1-D photons have no gravitational gradient. On the other hand, when nuclear particles increase in energy/mass, their rate of e-m interaction decreases (and their wavelength increases) due to the directionally opposing gravitational energy gradient.

Because the orbital particle exists at a relatively great distance from the nucleus, the orbital occupies a region with significantly weaker gravitational energy gradient with a faster rate of e-m interaction and faster rate of time than that of the strong gravitational gradient within the nucleus. So the orbital particle possesses a high rate of e-m interaction relative to its partner in the nucleus, and has enough energy to "bump" its entangled partner in the nucleus to a corresponding energy level, so that the orbital and nuclear partners both have the same rate of e-m interaction, forming a strong entanglement. This is the binding energy of entanglement that impacts the strength of the entanglement. (Keep in mind that the process may be just the opposite, with the nucleon providing energy to "bump" its entangled orbital partner into a corresponding energy level.)

Gravitational gradients are different for each dimension. Gravitational energy gradients are due to a changing ratio of potential energy (i.e., number of basic 1-D units of 123d space per unit area or volume) to kinetic energy (rate of motion of 1-D units of 123d space relative to each other) of 123d space inward toward a body of mass. Elementary 1-D photons possess little or no gravitational energy gradient since it takes at least two dimensions to form a gravitational gradient. 2-D electrons and positrons possess 2-D gravitational gradients. 3-D particles, such as protons and nucleons, possess 3-D gravitational gradients. Differences in gravitational gradients among 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D particles may also affect the rate of electromagnetic (e-m) interactions.

In this model, 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D energy structures have different properties, including the relationship between particle energy and e-m wavelength or frequency. This means that the Compton wavelength may not applicable for 2-D and 3-D elementary energy systems. 2-D particles have a slower rate of e-m interaction than their 1-D counterparts, and 3-D particles have a slower rate of e-m interaction than their 2-D counterparts. This is because the same amount of energy will oscillate to and from system center at different rates depending upon whether it is filling 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D space as it oscillates. In addition, the directionally opposing gravitational gradients of 2-D and 3-D particles provide mass which slows the rate of e-m interaction as mass increases. (However, the proton's 3-D wavelength (1303 mfm) is close in value to its Compton wavelength or its 1-D photon equivalent (1321 mfm), and this may contribute to its unusual stability, especially if its energy cycles from center to surface along its 1-D axis of spin - as 1-D energy not impacted by the gravitational energy gradient.)

Particles in a nucleus are much larger than their orbital partners due to their entangled relationships and their strong gravitational gradient. In this model, there is no need for neutrons to exist in the atomic nucleus (however, neutrons can be produced within the nuclear environment, and emitted as radiation to increase structural stability). Instead, all particles in the nucleus alternate e-m directionality with every e-m interaction, in the opposing direction of their entangled partners. Each nuclear particle and its entangled orbital partner oscillate back and forth between a positive and a negative e-m directionality (with the oscillating gravitational gradient composing directional "charge" fields with directionality opposing that of the e-m directionality) providing directional balance to each other. In other words, at any given moment, a neutral (non-ion) nucleus and atom consist of an even number of positive and negative e-m directionalities. Due entangled relationships between nucleons and orbital particles, there is no net e-m directionality and no net charge within a neutral (non-ion) atom. In this model, all atoms are compound bosons with the exception of ions.

The orbital particle cannot take on the slower e-m interaction or rate of time of its nuclear partner because energy moves toward its lowest possible energy level - and energy within a strong gravitational energy gradient is analogous to higher pressure even though energy appears to become lazier within a strong gravitational gradient due to the slower rate of time (or slower rate of e-m interaction). However, mass is essentially kinetic energy that is trapped and converted to potential energy by strong gravitational energy gradients. This confined and compressed energy wants to move outward toward regions of weaker gravitational gradient analogous to lower pressure and a lower energy level.

If it is difficult to visualize the above, consider that an atomic nucleus probably possesses one of the strongest gravitational energy gradients in nature (possibly within a micro-scale Schwarzchild radius). When the energy of atoms are tapped in an atomic bomb, these incredibly small energy storehouses release enormous amounts of energy almost instantaneously. The energy inside an atom, then, can be visualized as being packed into a very small space under tremendous pressure, just waiting to escape its powerful confinement. When an atom becomes dramatically disturbed resulting in directional imbalance, its nuclear and orbital particles with opposing e-m directionalities "bump" into each other, resulting in annihilation and release of mass in the form of energy. This becomes a chain reaction that results in the release of enormous amounts of energy.

(It seems likely that entanglement involves "binding energy" that would vary based on the type of entanglement, including the energy level that the entangled particles occupy. "Binding energy" would be absorbed in the creation of entanglement, and released during the process of disentanglement. So it is possible that "binding energy" of entanglement may affect the amount of energy within the atomic structure.)

 

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56a - Nucleon size due to entanglement with orbital partner - 2-17-13

To explore traditional views on atomic structure, see "Atom" on Wikipedia.