60- bosons vs. fermions

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Bosons versus fermions

"Elementary" bosons are photons, consisting of 1-D electromagnetic interactions.  Elementary bosons do not possess gravitational energy gradients.  1-D photons cannot possess a gravitational energy gradient because such a gradient is composed of a varying density of 1-D basic units of 123d space occupying 2-D or 3-D space. As a result, 1-D energy systems, such as photons, are massless. 1-D e-m energy, such as that of a photon, can exist overlapping itself, and act in concert with like 1-D energy. Photons can combine to act as "one." 

Individual 1-D photons possess sequential alternating e-m directionality with every e-m interaction.  The 1-D photon interchanges identity with itself every two pairs of e-m interactions. Both of these properties may help provide directional balance to the 1-D electromagnetic energy system.  The path of v = c may be the 1-D equivalent to the center of gravity for 1-D photons and neutrinos, and v = c may be the 1-D equivalent to a gravitational energy gradient. If so, the latter would have significant implications for the relationships among electric, magnetic, and gravitational energies.

Entangled identical 1-D photon partners (in-phase with each other) simultaneously alternate e-m directionality and interchange identities with every e-m interaction, providing directional balance to each other.

“Compound” bosons, composed of even numbers of elementary 2-D particles (orbital and nuclear e+-/e-+ and e-+/e+- particles), mimic the properties of elementary bosons, because they represent structures with optimal directional balance. Entangled particles do not see themselves as having individual identities, but instead exist as directionally balanced, undefined energy (passive observers - not taking a measurement - have the same perception).

All entangled particle pairs within an energy level are entangled with corresponding entangled particle pairs existing within that same energy level. For example, an energy level in an atomic orbital might consist of 4 entangled pairs (orbitals) with a total of 8 entangled particles. The directionally balanced energy of all 8 entangled particles may act as "one" energy, and can provide 8 quanta of magnetic energy per electromagnetic interaction to provide directional balance to electric, or unidirectional, energy within the nucleus. So, even numbers of entangled fermions can mimic the behavior of elementary bosons, individual energy acting in concert with each other, through their directionally balance, consisting of undefined energy (i.e., entangled pairs of particles with no observable unidirectionality).

This means that, in this model, all atoms act as bosons since atoms only have e+-/e-+ particles (i.e., entangled nucleons, but no neutrons) in the nucleus with an equal number of orbital e-+/e+- particles, each entangled with a nucleon partner. As a result, all atoms have an even number of "fermions," so all atoms (with the exception of ions) are compound bosons.

Unentangled fermions possess the same e-m directionality with every e-m interaction, resulting in unidirectional quantum properties, including charge, spin, and time.  An unentangled fermion does not possess sequential alternating e-m directionality or interchanging identity with itself, and is therefore attracted to an opposing energy system (another fermion) to achieve directional balance, or repelled from energy (a fermion with same directionality) that would create a higher energy level. The gravitational energy gradients of 2-D and 3-D e-m energy systems also contribute to fermion behavior.

(Keep in mind that, even when a directionally balance energy system, such as entangled particles, are measured, only one property at a time can be focused on, with all other properties proportionally out-of-focus, so that a unidirectional property may be detected through measurement of a directionally balanced particle. In other words, measurement of a compound boson may result in the detection of a fermion property.) 3/6/13

 

See illustration below. Click here for enlargement.

 

60- bosons vs. fermions

 

To explore traditional views on properties of bosons, see "Boson" on Wikipedia.

To explore traditional views on properties of fermions, see "Fermion" on Wikipedia.