The following illustration shows seven identical candles burned to different heights. In #2, the candles are suspended on wires so that they are all at the same height. When an opaque screen is placed in front of the candles in #1, the observer only sees 4 candles. To the observer, the other 3 candles do not exist. When the screen is placed in front of the suspended candles in #2, they all appear to be the same height. The observer may draw the conclusion that the candles are all the same, and will burn the same length of time.

If the observer measures the heat from a single candle, the heat of the other candles cannot be known - without affecting the results of the initial measurement. The measurer has a choice: measure the heat of one candle, or measure the combined heat of all the candles. This is similar to the active observer who takes a measurement, focusing on a single property, resulting in all other properties being proportionally out-of-focus, and the passive observer who takes no measurement, and sees the properties of the entire system, but does not know anything about a specific property of that system.

The screen in front of the candles corresponds to the limitations of observation of atomic and subatomic energy. The observer's frame of reference is affected by the limitations of a visual barrier and the limitations of measurement. In our world, everything we observe is electromagnetic, including us, and so our frame of reference is electromagnetic. As a result, all our observations are subject to Einstein's laws of relativity. However, there are two types of energy that are not electromagnetic in nature:

1) The inherent energy of 123d space, consisting of basic 1-D units of energy in random motion and distribution relative to each other, and

2) Gravitational energy gradients consisting of the basic 1-D units of energy of 123d space - the gradient is due to decreasing kinetic energy of 123d space and proportionally increasing potential energy of 123d space approaching a body of mass, resulting in a slower rate of electromagnetic interaction, and subsequently, a slower rate of time.

Since we are electromagnetic observers, we would have to observe non-electromagnetic energy from a different frame of reference than we observe electromagnetic energy. Because the inherent energy of 123d space is non-electromagnetic and directionally balanced (in the absence of electric energy), it cannot be directly observed from an electromagnetic frame of reference. However, magnetic and time energy are produced by the energy of 123d space, and therefore the properties of 123d space may be observed indirectly by observing the effects of magnetic and time energy since they are both components of electromagnetic energy.

Gravitational energy gradients are also produced by the energy of 123d space. While we can't directly observe gravitational energy gradients, we can observe their effects, such as the slowing of the rate of electromagnetic interaction, and slowing of the rate of time nearer to a body of mass.

A number of factors affect an observer's frame of reference, including: 1) entanglement of observed energy, 2) the type of energy the observer is composed of versus the type of energy he or she is observing, 3) the Uncertainty Principle (measurement), and 4) physical barriers to observation.